Types of Closing Costs
1. Charges for Establishing and Transferring Ownership. These include title search, title insurance and related escrow fees.
2. Amounts Paid to State and Local Governments. These include city, county and state transfer taxes, recordation fees, and prepaid property taxes.
3. Costs of Getting a Mortgage. These include appraisal, credit checks, loan documentation fees, notary charges, loan origination, underwriting, commitment and processing fees, hazard insurance, interest prepayments, and lender's inspection fees.
When it comes to houses, providing clear title is not simple. Moreover, your lending institution will not give you a mortgage loan on a house unless you can prove that the seller owns it. The proof comes in the title search.
In many parts of the country, public records affecting real estate title are spread among several local government offices, including recorders of deeds, county courts, tax assessors, and surveyors. Records of deaths, divorces, court judgments, liens, and contests over wills (all of which can affect ownership rights) also must be examined. An escrow or title company, a lawyer, or other specialist may carry out the title search. In addition to a formal title search, your will require a title insurance policy. The policy guards the lender against an error by whoever searched the title. Let's say, for example, that a long-lost relative of the seller turns up with indisputable evidence that the relative - and not the seller - holds legal title to the property. Though it should have been found in the public records, the relative's claim was missed somehow. Errors are rare, but they do occur.
The cost of the policy (a one-time premium) is usually based on the loan amount, and is often paid by the purchaser. There's nothing, however, to keep you from asking the seller, during your negotiations, to pay part or the entire premium. The title insurance required by the lender protects only the lender. To protect yourself against unforeseen title problems, you may also want to take out an owner's title insurance policy. Normally the additional premium cost is only a fraction of the lender's policy, but this can vary from area to area. Some final advice on keeping title insurance costs low: if the seller owned the house you are buying for only a few years, check with a title company. If you can obtain a re-issue rate, the premium is likely to be lower than the regular charge for a new policy.
Government Imposed Costs
While there is no way to avoid paying these taxes, you may be able to lessen your share of the bill. Try shifting some or all of the cost to the house. But remember, you must do this when you make your offer to purchase the property.
Imposed by your lender, this charge covers the initial costs of processing your loan request.
This fee pays for an independent appraisal of the home you want to purchase. The lender requires this opinion or estimate of the market value of the house for the loan.
Origination Fees & Discount Points
The origination fee is charged for the lender's work in evaluating and preparing your mortgage loan. Discount points are prepaid finance charges imposed by the lender at closing to increase the yield to the lender beyond the stated interest rate on the mortgage note. The greater the discount points paid, the lower the interest rate. One point equals one percent of the loan amount. For example, one point on a $100,000 loan would be $1,000. In some cases - especially with refinances - adding them to the loan amount can finance the points.
Buyers who make down payments less than 20 percent of the value of the house may be required by lenders, and by law in some states, to take out mortgage insurance. The policy covers the lender's risk in the event the buyer fails to make the loan payments. Premiums are typically paid annually from an escrow or reserve account, or in a lump sum at closing.
Insurance: Homeowners & Hazard
A form or protection against physical damage to the house by fire, wind, vandalism and other causes. Your lender will expect you to have a policy in effect at closing.
This is charged when you are taking over or assuming an existing mortgage on the house. The size of the fee will depend on the lender, but it may range from several hundred dollars to one percent of the loan amount.
Home Inspection Fee
An analysis of the structural condition of the property by an engineer or consultant, and for termite inspections.
Various Expenses Between Buyer & Seller
Some of the adjustments may involve large amounts. Local property taxes, annual condominium fees and other lump-sum service charges, for instance, may be split between you and the seller to cover your respective periods of ownership for the calendar year or tax period.
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